Powerpoint Presentation: Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)
- MMT is the most vital part of motor assessment Performa in medical examination.
- MMT is a procedure for the evaluation of the strength and individual muscle or muscle group based upon the effective performance of a movement in relation to the forces of gravity or manual resistance through the available ROM.
- i.e. how efficiently a muscle is working or muscles strength/power assessment using manual techniques.
Why MMT is performed?
- Is a particular muscle normal?
- Is it weak? (how much weak)
- Is it strong enough? (how much strong)
- weak on both the sides(bilaterally symmetrical)?
- Is it weak only on one side(unilateral)?
- proximal muscles are weaker than the distal one?
- distal muscles are weaker than the proximal one?
- there any particular pattern of muscle weakness?
- Introduction to the topic
- Why MMT is performed?
- CLINICAL REASONING OF PERFORMING MMT
- GRADES OF MMT
- BASIC RULES
- HAND PLACEMENT
- OBJECTIVITY AND RELIABILITY OF MMT
- ALTERNATE TECHNIQUES OF ASSESSING MUSCLE STRENGTH APART FROM CONVENTIONAL MMT
- RESISTED ISOMETRIC TESTING
- BREAK AND MAKE TEST
- FUNCTIONAL TEST
- HAND-HELD DYNAMOMETER
- RELIABILITY OF HHD
- WRIST EXTENSORS
- NECK FLEXORS
- PINCH DYNAMOMETER
- SHOULDER PULLING DYNAMOMETER
- LOW BACK AND LEG DYNAMOMETER
- Mentiplay B F, Perraton LG, Bower K J, Adair B, Pua Y-H, Williams G P, et al. (2015). “Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and validity Study”. PloS one 10(10): e0140822.
- Thorborg K, Petersen J, Magnusson S, Hölmich P. (2010). “Clinical assessment of hip strength using a hand-held dynamometer is reliable”. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 20(3): 493-50
- Bandinelli S, Benvenuti E, Del Lungo I, Baccini M, Benvenuti F, Di Iorio A, et al. (1999). “Measuring muscular strength of the lower limbs by hand-held dynamometer: a standard protocol”. Ageing clinical and experimental research 11(5): 287-293.
- Stoll T, Huber E, Seifert B, Michel B, Stucki G. (2000). “Maximal isometric muscle strength: normative values and gender-specific relation to age”. Clinical rheumatology 19(2): 105-11
- Stark T, Walker B, Phillips J K, Fejer R, Beck R. (2011). “Hand-held dynamometry correlation with the gold standard isokinetic dynamometry: a systematic review”. PM&R 3(5): 472-47
- Van Harlingen W, Blalock L, Merritt J L. (2015). “Upper Limb Strength: Study Providing Normative Data for a Clinical Handheld Dynamometer”. PM&R 7(2): 135-140.
- Whiteley R, Jacobsen P, Prior S, Skazalski C, Otten R, Johnson A. (2012). “Correlation of isokinetic and novel hand-held dynamometry measures of knee flexion and extension strength testing”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 15(5): 44445
- Lu Y-M, Lin J-H, Hsiao S-F, Liu M-F, Chen S-M, Lue Y-J. (2011). “The relative and absolute reliability of leg muscle strength testing by a handheld dynamometer”. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 25(4): 1065-107
- Kim S-G, Lee Y-S. (2015). “The intra-and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using a handheld dynamometer”. Journal of physical therapy science 27(6): 179
- Le-Ngoc L, Janssen J. (2012). “Validity and reliability of a hand-held dynamometer for dynamic muscle strength assessment”, INTECH Open Access Publisher.
- Andrews A W, Thomas MW, Bohannon RW. (1996). “Normative values for isometric muscle force measurements obtained with hand-held dynamometers”. Physical therapy 76(3): 248-25
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